Climate: Some Alarming Figures!

“Climate change is being registered around the world and warming of the climate system is unequivocal. Since the 1950s many of the observed changes are unprecedented over decades to millennia. Our assessment finds that the atmosphere and oceans have warmed, the amount of snow and ice has diminished, sea level has risen and the concentration of carbon dioxide has increased to a level unprecedented in at least the last 800,000 years” (IPCC Press Release, November 2014).

95% It is the degree of certainty, described as "extremely probable", that human activity is the main cause of the warming observed since the middle of the 20th century.
4.8 ° C the increase in average surface temperatures of the planet by 2100 compared to the period 1986-2005, if the emission of greenhouse gases continues at their current rate (between 0.3°C and 3.1°C).
98 CM of ocean level rise in 2100 compared to the period 1986-2005, in the most pessimistic scenario. According to the latest IPCC report, the ocean level has risen by 19 cm since the end of the 19th century. 54% Annual CO2 emissions from human sources (fossil fuels, cement production) over the period 2002-2011.
-70% This is the necessary reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions (CO2, methane and nitrous oxide) in 2050 compared to their level of 2010 to maintain the average increase in temperatures below 2°C.

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  • Climate conference
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Conference of the Parties

In 1995, the first COP was held in Berlin, where quantified targets for reducing greenhouse gas emissions were set for each country or region through political commitment measures.
In 1996 the second COP took place in Geneva, right after the publication of the second IPCC report, which consolidates the role of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and decides to make a more binding convention, including specific objectives.
In 1997, the Conference of the Parties was held in Kyoto and for the first time a binding protocol was adopted to regulate CO2 emissions from the most industrialized countries (reducing global greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% by 2020 using 1990 as a benchmark and a total reduction in emissions of 8% for the European Union).
In 1998, the 4th Conference of the Parties (COP4) was held in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where the participating States raised various issues on the Kyoto Protocol and agreed to clarify the terms of the Kyoto Protocol.
In 1999, the 5th Conference of the Parties (COP5) took place in Bonn, Germany and the participants continued the discussion on the technical issues of the Kyoto Protocol.
In 2000, the 6th Conference of the Parties (COP6) was held in The Hague (Netherlands). It was marked by a disagreement between Europe and the US on the terms of the protocol.
In 2001, the 6th Conference of the Parties (COP6bis) was organized in Bonn (Germany) and was marked mainly by the non-participation of the USA in negotiations at the conference. However, an agreement was reached on several issues (including sanctions).
In 2001, the 7th Conference of the Parties (COP7) was held in Marrakech, Morocco and all amendments and clarifications to the Kyoto Protocol were assembled in the Marrakesh Accords
In 2002, the 8th Conference of the Parties (COP8) took place in Delhi, India, in which European countries sought the support of participating States for a more binding agreement.
In 2003, the 9th Conference of the Parties (COP9) was held in Milan, Italy, and discussions were also held on some technical aspects of the Kyoto Protocol.
In 2004, the 10th Conference of the Parties (COP10) was once again held in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and the Parties were already planning and discussing post-Kyoto actions (from 2012).

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After Kyoto

In 2005, the 11th Conference of the Parties (COP11), held in Montreal, Canada, was the first annual meeting since the entry into force of the Kyoto Protocol and members who signed the Convention without signing Kyoto had the status of Observers at COP11 meetings.
In 2006, the 12th Conference of the Parties (COP12) was held in Nairobi, Kenya and the premises of a new agreement were established at this conference, in addition to the finalization of the Kyoto Protocol.
In 2007, Bali (Indonesia) proposed to organize the 13th Conference of the Parties (COP13). During the working meeting, significant progress was made on the post-Kyoto period, with the IPCC report and the willingness of participating countries to move forward. An action plan was developed and defined the negotiating parameters for a new agreement expected for at COP15 in Copenhagen.
In 2008, the 14th Conference of the Parties (COP14) was organized in Poznan (Poland). A negotiating schedule for Copenhagen was agreed upon, with emphasis on the necessary fight against deforestation.
In 2009, the 15th Conference of the Parties (COP15) in Copenhagen, Denmark, asserted that the nations of the world wanted to contain global warming below + 2°C.

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From Doha (COP 18) to Lima (COP 20)...

In 2012, at the COP18 held in Doha, a second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol was decided until 2020.
In 2013, COP 19 was held in Warsaw. It resulted in a compromise agreed upon by all participants on the efforts that each should make to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The conclusions of the Warsaw summit, however, marked a new step forward towards the global agreement to be adopted at the COP 21 in 2015 in Paris.
In 2014, negotiations at COP 20 in Lima resulted in an agreement that provided a basis for preparing for the Paris 2015 / COP 21 conference.
The Lima Appeal for Climate Action defined the outline of the national contributions that each country will have to communicate at the beginning of the following year. It was an essential element in continuing the momentum of recent announcements by the European Union, the United States and China on reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

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