COP 21 in Paris

COP21, which took place in Paris in 2015, made it possible to conclude a historic agreement to replace the extension of the Kyoto protocol from 2020 onwards.
151 heads of states and governments from around the world participated in this COP and confirmed their mobilization and political commitment to make the Paris Conference a success.

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COP21 Objective

Under COP21, and in line with the COP19 in Warsaw and COP20 in Lima, each country must show, publicly, a contribution that presents the decisions taken at the national level.
The first common objective to all of these contributions is to go beyond the current commitment of the States. The second is to take into account the national specificities and constraints of each country, and to present them within the framework of an ambitious project. The third is transparency: each contribution is published as soon as it is submitted on the UNFCCC website.
Finally, all contributions aim at both mitigating greenhouse gas emissions by planning to change the national economy and by adapting people's living conditions to actual or anticipated climate change.
A total of 184 countries virtually representing all global greenhouse gas emissions submitted their climate action plans to the United Nations before the opening of COP21.

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The Agreement Ambitions

The agreement set the limit of the global temperature rise "well below + 2 ° C" by 2100 and urges States to continue their efforts towards +1.5 ° C. To achieve this ambitious goal, the agreement calls for "the balance between anthropogenic emissions and the natural absorptive capacities of the planet, thus giving a role to the forests, in the second half of the century.

If no quantified reduction in greenhouse gas emissions is mentioned, it should be noted that according to the IPCC, a target of 1.5 ° C actually means a 70-80% reduction in GHG emissions by the second half of the century, and zero emission in 2100 at the latest.

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The Financing

At the COP held in Copenhagen, developed countries pledged to unlock $ 100 billion per year for the energy transition of the Southern countries. This amount is expected to be revised in 2025.
The agreement stipulates that developed countries must provide financial assistance to developing countries, both in terms of adaptation to global warming and the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions, which implies the development of renewable energies.
It is therefore mentioned in the agreement that developing countries with the capacity to do so are encouraged to contribute to the financing

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Another major advancement to the agreement

The establishment of a new version of the review and transparency mechanisms for national climate contributions (INDC or NDC) as well as an upward revision process every 5 years for all Parties.
A first global assessment of the impacts of these contributions will be carried out in 2023.
The agreement also recognizes the action of non-governmental actors, which are already mobilized, such as the Paris Appeal by which 800 companies, investors, cities and regions of the world commit themselves to surpassing the level of ambition set out in the Paris Climate Change Agreement.

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